The technique of soil testing and fertilizer application for various vegetables in greenhouse

The technique of soil testing and fertilization for vegetables has the characteristics of increasing production and income, saving fertilizer, increasing the utilization rate of fertilizers, reducing the pollution of nitrates to vegetables and the environment.

First, the principle of soil testing and formula fertilization

The amount of fertilizer was determined based on the yield of vegetables and the amount of nutrients absorbed, as well as the status of soil nutrients in the vegetable field. The fertilization period was determined according to the nutritional and physiological characteristics of the vegetables. Vegetable seedlings require few nutrients, and more nutrients are required during vigorous growth and product formation. Organic fertilizers and phosphate fertilizers are generally used as the basis for vegetable sowing and planting. Available nitrogen and potassium fertilizers can be used as top dressings during mid-fertility. The frequency of topdressing can be determined according to the length of the growing period of the vegetables. Vegetables with a short growth period can be harvested for 1 or 2 rounds of fertilizer in the middle growth period. Long-growing vegetables can be used for 3 to 4 rounds of fertilizer when the nutrient demand is high. Usually every 15 to 20 days to recover 1 to 2 times the fertilizer, generally every 15 to 20 days to recover 1 to 2 times the fertilizer, according to different vegetables and different fertilizers determine the fertilization method. Phosphorus fertilizers are easily fixed by the soil and should be applied centrally, in strips or in caves. Nitrogen and potash fertilizers are generally applied in a ditch or acupuncture, and can also be applied with water in the later period of fertility.

1. It is advisable to apply organic fertilizer with more cellulose (that is, a high ratio of carbon to nitrogen) to organic fertilizers, which can greatly increase the nutrient buffering capacity of the soil, prevent salt accumulation, and delay the process of soil salinization.

2. The scientific monitoring conductivity meter for spreading fertilization (also often written as an EC meter and the measured data is the EC value) monitors the soil solution concentration. Fertility disorders occur in vegetables that exceed a certain EC value, and fertilization should be stopped and watered appropriately if close to the critical value is found.

3. Deepen the soil tillage Due to the accumulation of salt accumulation in the protected soil, after the harvest of the vegetables, deep-dip, turn the topsoil rich in salts to the lower layer, and turn the lower layer of soil with less salt to the top , can greatly reduce salt damage.

4. Use refilling gaps, remove film, rain, dissolve salt or irrigating salt. After the end of summer harvest, remove the film. If the film is not covered in the rainy season for several days, the sun and rain will be effective for removing soil barriers; or at high temperatures. Season, flood irrigation, ground cover film to increase the temperature of the water, not only can wash the salt, but also to kill bacteria, is conducive to the next high-yield vegetable production.

5. Deep basal fertilizer application, top-dressing with fertilizer as a base fertilizer, deep-applied, as top-dressing, try to "a small number of times", it is best to mix chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer applied to the ground, and then plough. Topdressing is generally difficult to apply. Therefore, the amount of fertilizer should be strictly controlled and the number of topdressing should be increased to meet the demand of nutrients for vegetables. It is not allowed to over-fertilize once, resulting in an increase in the concentration of soil solution.

6. It is strongly advocated that top dressing plants mainly rely on roots to absorb nutrients, and leaves and tender stems can also directly absorb nutrients from the solution sprayed on the surface. In protected cultivation, because top dressings do not “tug the soil”, they should be promoted. Urea and superphosphate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate, as well as trace elements, are suitable as top-dressing fertilizers.

7. Ground cover for ground cover has a significant effect on inhibiting surface salt accumulation.

Second, the main vegetable fertilizer technology

1. Cabbage fertilization technology to produce 1,000 kilograms of cabbage requires 1.6 kg of pure nitrogen, 0.8 kg of phosphorus pentoxide and 1.8 kg of potassium oxide. The production of 0.5 to 10,000 kilograms of Chinese cabbage requires 8 to 16 kilograms of pure nitrogen, 4 to 8 kilograms of phosphorus pentoxide, and 9 to 18 kilograms of potassium oxide. Before planting cabbage, 5000 kg of organic fertilizer was applied to Mushi and 25-50 kg of phosphate fertilizer was applied. Cabbage entered the lotus stage for the first time dressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 3 ~ 6 kg, potassium oxide 3 ~ 6 kg. The second ball dressing or the top of the heart for the first time dressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 3 ~ 6 kg, potassium oxide 3 ~ 6 kg. The third ball-batch or top-hearted mid-stage fertilizer is applied. Mushi pure nitrogen is 2 to 4 kg and potassium oxide is 3 to 6 kg.

2. Cabbage Fertilization Technology Production of 1,000 kilograms of cabbage requires 2.0 kg of pure nitrogen, 0.72 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, 2.2 kg of potassium oxide, 3,000 to 5,000 kg of cabbage per mu, and 6 to 10 kg of pure nitrogen and 2.2 to 3.6 kg of phosphorus pentoxide. Potassium oxide 6.6 to 11 kg. Before the planting of cabbage, 2500 kilograms of organic manure and 20-25 kilograms of phosphorus fertilizer were applied. Cabbage into the lotus stage for the first time dressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 36 kg, potassium oxide 3.3 to 5.5 kg. Into the cabbage ball stage, the second top dressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 3 ~ 6 kg, potassium oxide 3.3 ~ 5.5 kg.

3. Tomato fertilizer technology to produce 1,000 kilograms of tomatoes requires 3.86 kilograms of pure chlorine, 1.15 kilograms of phosphorus pentoxide and 4.44 kilograms of potassium oxide. Production of 4000-5000 kg of tomatoes per mu requires 15.4- 19.3 kg of pure nitrogen, 4.6-5.8 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 17.8-22.2 kg of potassium oxide.

Before planting tomatoes, Mushi organic fertilizer 5000 kilograms, phosphate fertilizer 30 to 50 kilograms. Generally, when the first fruit begins to inflate to the size of a table tennis ball, it can be topdressed for the first time. Mushi pure nitrogen is 5-6 kilograms, and potassium oxide is 6-7 kilograms. The second time dressing is the first time the fruit is about to be harvested. When the second fruit is enlarged to the size of the table tennis, Mushi nitrogen is 5-7 kg and potassium oxide is 6-8 kg. The third time the topdressing is about to be harvested in the second ear, and when the third ear enlarges to the size of the table tennis, Mushi pure nitrogen is 5 to 6 kg and potassium oxide is 6 to 7 kg.

4. The application of bell pepper fertilizing technology to produce 1,000 kilograms of sweet pepper requires 5.2 kilograms of pure nitrogen, 1.1 kilograms of phosphorus pentoxide, and 6.5 kilograms of potassium oxide. Per kilogram of sweet pepper 4000 ~ 5000 kg, phosphate 30 ~ 40 kg. When the seedlings are over and the first ear grows to the size of the walnut, the first topdressing will be performed. Mushi pure nitrogen will be 5-6 kg and potassium oxide 6-8 kg. When entering the first ear fruit (Jian pepper) is about to be harvested, the fruit of the second layer (against pepper) and the third layer (four mothers) continue to expand and the fruit of the third layer is falling. , should be re-applied the second time dressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 6 ~ 7 kg, potassium oxide 7 ~ 8 kg. The third topdressing was performed about two weeks later and the amount of fertilizer was the same as the second. After 15 to 20 days, the fourth topdressing was performed with the same amount of fertilizer applied for the first time.

5. Eggplant fertilization technology production of 1,000 kilograms of eggplant requires 3.2 kg of pure nitrogen, 0.94 kg of phosphorus pentoxide and 4.5 kg of potassium oxide. The persimmon eggplant is 4,000-5,000 kilograms in weight, which requires pure nitrogen from 12.8 to 16 kilograms, phosphorus pentoxide from 3.8 to 4.7 kilograms, and potassium oxide from 18 to 22.5 kilograms. Before the planting of eggplant, 5000 kg of organic fertilizer and 25-35 kg of phosphate fertilizer were planted. When the "door eggplant" reaches the "window-opening period" ("flower opening" when the ovary expands after fertilization is called "winking"), the fruit begins to grow rapidly. At this time, the first topdressing is performed, and 4 to 5 kg of pure nitrogen per mu is applied. Potassium 6 to 7 kg. When the “tomato” fruit enlargement, “four mother fighting” began to develop, it is the peak of eggplant for fertilizer, after the second topdressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 5 ~ 6 kg, potassium oxide 6 ~ 8 kg. In the second half of the second dressing, the third topdressing was performed with the same amount of fertilizer applied for the first time.

6. Cucumber fertilization technology to produce 1,000 kilograms of cucumber requires 2.6 kg of pure nitrogen, 1.5 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, 3.5 kg of potassium oxide, 4,000 kg to 5000 kg of cucumber, 10.4 to 13 kg of pure nitrogen, 6 to 15 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, potassium oxide 14 to 15.7 kilograms. In the early stage of fruiting, the first time dressing was applied. Mushi pure nitrogen was 3 to 4 kg and potassium oxide was 4 to 6 kg. In the early stage of the harvest, the first time, the topdressing melon was applied with 3 to 4 kg of pure nitrogen and 5 to 6 kg of potassium oxide. In the middle of the melon period, the third top-dressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 3 ~ 4 kg, potassium oxide 5 ~ 6 kg. Before the planting, 5000 kg of organic fertilizer was applied to Mushi and 40-50 kg of phosphate fertilizer.

7. Radish fertilization technology to produce 1,000 kilograms of radish requires 2.0 kilograms of pure nitrogen, 0.7 kilograms of phosphorus pentoxide and 2.9 kilograms of potassium oxide. 5000 kg of radish per mu requires 10 kg of pure nitrogen, 3.5 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 14.5 kg of potassium oxide. Before planting the radish, 2500 kilograms of organic manure and 25 kilograms of phosphorus fertilizer were planted. Into the rosette period, the first time dressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 5 kg, 7 kg of potassium oxide. The first time the fleshy root was growing, the second fertilizer was applied, and 5 kg of pure nitrogen and 7 kg of potassium oxide were used.

8. Carrot fertilization technology to produce 1000 kilograms of carrots requires 2.4 kg of pure nitrogen, 0.8 kg of phosphorus pentoxide and 5.7 kg of potassium oxide. The production of carrots from 3000 to 4000 kg per mu requires 7.2 to 9.6 kg of pure nitrogen, 2.4 to 3.2 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 17.1 to 22.8 kg of potassium oxide. Before planting carrots, 2500 kilograms of organic manure and 25-30 kilograms of phosphate fertilizer were planted. Into the rosette period, the first time dressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 3 ~ 4 kg, potassium oxide 8 ~ 10 kg. During the root growth stage of the fleshy roots, the second top dressing was applied. Mushi pure nitrogen was 4 to 5 kg and potassium oxide was 8 to 12 kg.

9. The production of 1000 kg of celery by celery fertilization requires 2.0 kg of pure nitrogen, 0.93 kg of phosphorus pentoxide and 3.9 kg of potassium oxide. The 4,000 to 5,000 kilograms of celery production will require 8 to 10 kilograms of pure nitrogen, 3.7 to 4.6 kilograms of phosphorus pentoxide, and 15.6 to 19.5 kilograms of potassium oxide. Before planting celery Mushi organic fertilizer 4000 ~ 5000 kg, 25 ~ 35 kg of phosphate fertilizer. The plants entered a vigorous growth period and the first time dressing was performed. Mushi pure nitrogen was 2.3 kg and potassium oxide was 5-6 kg. The second time after half a month, topdressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 3 ~ 4 kg, potassium oxide 5 ~ 7 kg. After three months into the 3rd top dressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 3 kg, potassium oxide 5 ~ 6 kg.

10. Garlic Fertilizer Technology Production of 1,000 kg of garlic requires 5.1 kg of pure nitrogen, 1.3 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 1.8 kg of potassium oxide. The production of 1000-1500 kilograms of garlic per mu requires pure nitrogen of 5.1-7.6 kg, phosphorus pentoxide of 1.3-2.0 kg, and potassium oxide of 1.8-2.7 kg. Before the planting of garlic, the application of organic fertilizer in Mushi 2500-3000 kg, phosphate fertilizer 10-15 kg. Garlic vigorous growth period for the first time dressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 2 ~ 3 kg, 1 kg of potassium oxide. Into the expansion of the bulb for the second time dressing, Mushi pure nitrogen 3 to 4 kg, potassium oxide 1 to 2 kg.

11. Leek fertilizer technology to produce 1,000 kilograms of chives requires 3.7 kilograms of pure nitrogen, 0.8 kilograms of phosphorus pentoxide, and 3.1 kilograms of potassium oxide. The production of 5000 kg of leeks requires 18.5 kg of pure nitrogen, 4 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 15.5 kg of potassium oxide. Before the planting of leeks, 5000 kg of organic fertilizer and 30 kg of phosphate fertilizer were applied. More than ten days after the roots were planted, the new roots had already taken place. The first time the top dressing could be combined with watering, 3 kg of pure nitrogen and 3 kg of potassium oxide were applied. From the beginning of September to the beginning of October, it is the period with the strongest function of assimilation of leeks. It should be combined with watering to chase the fertilizer once every 10 to 15 days, and the amount of fertilizer should be the same for the first time. In the spring of the following year, the harvest can be started. The harvest will be 3 to 4 times a year. After each harvest, when the shoots reach a height of 3 cm, they can be topdressed for the first time. The amount of fertilizer will be the same as before.

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