Broccoli cultivation techniques

Broccoli is also known as broccoli, magnolia, broccoli, cauliflower, broccoli, and kale. Originating in Italy, it was not until the latter half of the 18th century that it was introduced into Europe by Europe and the United States. Only a small amount of broccoli was cultivated. In China, broccoli is a kind of autumn-winter vegetable, and it is a warm and cool climate. The plants are strong, cold and heat resistant, have wide adaptability, strong resistance, and are relatively easy to cultivate. The main cultivation techniques of several imported broccoli are summarized as follows.
First, sowing harvest
1, early maturing species in the end of June to July sowing is appropriate, late broadcast prone to early flowers, harvest around the National Day.
2, in late July to early August is appropriate, the supply of the listing period in mid-late November.
3, late-maturing species in September to early October can be listed before and after the Spring Festival.
Second, the nursery stage
1, the choice of seedbed should be selected slightly higher, well-drained, fertile land, in the afternoon without sun exposure and ventilation cool place for seedbed, or in the seedbed to set awning cool and rain.
2. The finishing of the seedbed should be deep-turned before the next seeding, full exposure, and sufficient base fertilizer, usually using a manure dung, a pail of 12-15 square meters, which is 1.5 meters wide (with drain) 8-10 Meter long bed base. Due to the small size of cauliflower seed, the bed surface should be flat.
3, fine sowing is usually used sowing, (grained by the seed) generally an acre field seeds, need about 15 square meters of seedlings, in the evening before the next kind of planting feet pouring water, but also the next kind of bed before smashing, Beat and flatten, and then under the seed, in accordance with the 2 inch X2 inch pendulum, 10-15 grams per acre seed, with a bamboo sieve a little fine soil.
4. Arbor shelters are an important technical measure for preventing heat, cooling, moisturizing and preventing rainstorms. (Shade sheds must use shade nets instead of other materials). Generally, it is covered with sunny days from 9 to 10 am, and can be exposed after 4 pm. It is not covered on cloudy days. Seedlings are subjected to exercise as much as possible to improve their resistance to stress. In the rainy days, especially when there is heavy rain or heavy rain, a plastic film is temporarily added to prevent the impact of rain on the seedlings.
5. The seedlings should be treated differently according to different varieties. Generally, the seedlings are mainly based on the principle of removing diseased seedlings, weak seedlings, and inferior seedlings. The seedlings that do not need to be transplanted can be grown three times in a gradual and gradual manner to stay weak and strong to ensure robust growth.
6. The false value of false planting has important significance for the cultivation of strong seedlings of cauliflower. After planting seedlings with prosthesis, the root system is developed, the resistance is strong, the plants are robust, the survival rate after planting is high, the seedlings are fast and the plants grow neatly. The false value is generally about 20 days after sowing. When the seedlings have 3-4 true leaves, the seedlings are graded and planted. The prosthetic distance is about 2X3 or 3X3 inches. In order to restore the growth of the seedlings after planting, organic fertilizers can be applied to the bed. Line alignment during planting is conducive to taking soil with seedlings and facilitating transplanting. After the imitation is completed, the pergola is still needed.
7, seedbed management is mainly fertilizer and disease prevention and pest work.
(1) Fertilization, based on the application of basal fertilizer, in principle, 15 square meters of seedbeds are supplemented with urea l kg. Or combine watering.
(2) watering, in principle, keep the bed moist, but not too wet, it is best to water every other day.
(3) Insect pests and insect pests mainly include aphids, cabbage caterpillars, and diamondback moth, etc. Once they are discovered, they are immediately controlled.
(4) Prevent disease. The main diseases are damping-off and seedling blight. Immediately after saplings are used, carbendazim or tetromycin is used. It is best to use a 500-fold control of mancozeb to ensure safe growth of seedlings. .
Third, field cultivation management
1. Reasonable mouthwash layout According to the growth and development characteristics of broccoli and taking into account the contradiction between individual and group growth, the correct arrangement of cornice layout is a prerequisite for harvesting bumper crops. The ratio of row spacing is: 4 feet combined, small row spacing is not less than 1.3 feet, plant spacing is 1.2 feet, and 2500 acres are planted.
2, before transplanting, deep sorghum sorghum should be made into a moist environment, but the resistance to pods is poor. Therefore, in the cultivation and management process, the sorghum sorghum is used to facilitate irrigation, which is a key to the success of cultivating cauliflower. .
3. Fertilizers due to different varieties of basal basmia have different varieties and types of basal fertilizers. The early cultivars have a short growing period, and have less absorption of soil nutrients than late-maturing cultivars. However, they grow rapidly and require urgent nutrition. Basic fertilizer should be Fast-acting nitrogen fertilizer is the mainstay. Late-maturing varieties, especially those with late-maturing varieties, have a long growth period, and base fertilizers should be combined with quick-effect and delayed-effect. Therefore, the amount of basal fertilizer is 50 kilograms of Mushi four-element compound fertilizer, plus 25k8 carbon ammonium or 50k8 carbon ammonium, plus 25k8 phosphate fertilizer, 7.5ks of potassium chloride and 2k8 boron fertilizer per mu. One of its advantages is that it does not cause cavities in the center of the flower shaft, and the flower balls are rust-brown and bitter (boron-deficient). Secondly, they do not make the new leaves become whip-like, or the leaves are lack of green and the buds are poorly developed (molybdenum deficiency); Is not in the growing period of yellowing between veins 4, field transplanting in the seedlings with 6-7 leaves, seedling age 25-30 days when the colonization, lifting the best soil with clods or soil groups for transplanting, do not Transplanting bare roots, because of the comparison between the two, the latter's harvest time should be delayed by about 20 days, adversely affecting the timely sowing of the next crop, and the output decreased by 10-15%, so when the planting line was first opened according to the distance埭 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度 深度. Then put the seedlings with the soil in the trenches, and when the soil is sealed, reach the half-grooves and water it, so that the soil blocks will be inflated, and then the soil will be covered. Pay attention to adhere to the grade transplanting, transplanting with drugs.
5, field management to obtain high yield, good quality flower ball, must have strong leaf clusters (ie basal leaves) as a guarantee. Therefore, during the growth of leaf clusters, it is timely to meet the requirements of water and nutrients so that the leaf clusters can grow in time.
(1) Dressing. Based on the application of basal fertilizer, after colonization and survival, it is necessary to dilute the use of thin manure to enhance seedlings. It is best to dig a hole and apply fertilizer at a different position between the two strains. General application of three times, the first time in the 7-10 days after planting survival, apply 20 kg of ammonium per acre, 2.5 kg of potassium chloride, the first time in the vigorous growth of plants applied 25 kg of ammonium bicarbonate, superphosphate 8 kg of potassium chloride 5 kg, the first time before the start of budding application of carbonic acid ammonium 20 kg, in short, depending on the seedlings can be used vigor, Hui Man Fung and other foliar fertilizer spray to reduce hollow rot and other undesirable phenomena.
(2) Watering. Cauliflower is a plant that likes to be moist. It needs more water during the whole growth process. In the period when leaf clusters are prosperous and flower bulbs are formed, especially large amounts of water are needed. If it does not meet its water requirements in time, it often grows less prosperous. Flower bulb grow up. Therefore, watering is often required to keep the field moist, but it cannot be flooded to avoid rooting.
(3) Weeding and weeding. From the time of colonization to plant closure, about 2-3 times can be, the principle is heavy rain or irrigation after timely cultivation and weeding. In order to prevent the growth of surface soil or weeds, soil must be cultivated during weeding and weeding.
Fourth, disease prevention and pest control.
The main diseases of cauliflower include blight, downy mildew, black rot, soft rot, viral disease, etc. Bacterial blight is controlled by 500 times of mancozeb; frostus urea manganese zinc (GK) 800 times the control; black rot, soft rot with agricultural streptomycin sulfate 3000 times to prevent and control; viral disease using virus K or virus Ning 500 times prevention. The main insect pests of cauliflower include aphids, cabbage butterfly, diamondback moth, and silver-wing moth, and these pests can be used for pyrethroid pesticides, phoxim, diflubenzuron, and cymbadiol.
V. Note:
After the main stem has been harvested, it may be necessary to continue fertilization to promote the growth of pods and increase yield and yield.

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