Factors Influencing Egg Production Performance of Commercial Layers and Prevention Measures

The egg production performance of commercial hens is directly related to the economic benefits of raising chickens. To improve the egg laying performance of commercial chickens depends on its good genetic and scientific feeding management. In practice, there are many factors that affect the egg laying performance of commercial chickens. As long as scientific analysis and judgment are made and effective control measures are taken, the benefit of raising chickens can be improved.

The main factor is the occurrence of disease During the laying period, chicken disease will affect its egg production performance, and infectious diseases are more harmful, but also the most important factor. In recent years, the market for laying hens has achieved good market conditions, there are many channels for chickens, the number of chickens has increased dramatically, and the lack of scientific planning and layout in rural hen houses has accompanied more and more diseases. If chicken Newcastle disease or bird flu epidemics occur, chickens can die in large numbers in a short period of time. Infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngotracheitis, ferrets, egg drop syndrome and other diseases, can make the number of egg production fell sharply and death. E. coli and bird cholera in chickens can cause salpingitis, peritonitis, and invade the tissues and organs of chickens.

The unequal weight chicken farmer usually only pays attention to the number of chickens and the survival rate, but neglects the weight change of the chicken during the rearing period and the laying period. There is a big difference in the body weight of the laying hens, the uniformity is poor, and the opening time is not neat. The peak period of egg production is late, the duration is short, and there is no peak period, which affects the performance of laying.

Changes in light during the breeding period, due to poor control of the light time, resulting in late sexual maturity or early chicken. During the production of eggs, problems such as blackouts, light intensity, and length of supplemental lighting are not fixed, causing physiological changes in chickens, premature or delayed onset of production, uneven egg production, low egg production rates, and short peak times. Poor economic efficiency.

Temperature and humidity affect the temperature directly affects the chicken's feed intake and chicken body's nutritional needs. If the temperature during the laying period is too high, the feed intake of the chicken will decrease, the temperature will be too low, and the feed consumption required to maintain the body temperature will increase. If the feed intake is not increased or the feed nutrient concentration is increased, the nutritional status of the layer will be relatively insufficient. Egg production. The humidity is too high. The chicken house is too moist and the feed is mildewy, which can easily cause the breeding of germs, induce coccidiosis and E. coli disease, and cause the disease of chickens. The humidity is too low, the house is dry, dust increases, and respiratory diseases are induced, affecting the growth and laying performance of laying hens.

Poor ventilation is one of the key factors affecting the performance of laying eggs. Poor ventilation during the egg production period will result in increased ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide levels in the house, which will affect the normal heart, lung, gastrointestinal, and nervous functions of the chicken, resulting in anemia in the chicken, weakening of the constitution, production performance, and disease resistance. The drop caused severe death of layer chickens.

Feed quality When feed ingredients have quality problems, unreasonable nutrient composition, or feed mildew during storage, or contamination by chemical toxic substances, chickens are poor in palatability and feed intake, resulting in nutritional deficiencies and even poisoning. Egg production dropped.

Drug abuse Many drugs affect the digestion and absorption of chickens and have an impact on egg production. For example, long-term use of sulfa drugs may cause chickens to produce thin shell eggs, soft shell eggs, and decreased egg production. Long-term use of tetracycline drugs affects chicken feed intake, calcium absorption, and the formation of yolk protein. Long-term use of anticoccidial drug chickens Experience of drug residues and accumulation, and even poisoning, affect the egg production rate.

Stress factors Layer chickens are very sensitive to various stresses. Noise, ventilation, cold and heat, refueling, medication, immunity, power failure, water stoppage, etc. can all cause stress, resulting in changes in production performance and even the death of laying hens. The rate increases.

Genetic factors Different breeds of laying hens have different production performance, and some diseases can be transmitted vertically through eggs. Therefore, the production performance and health of breeders can affect the laying performance of commercial chickens.

The prevention and control measures affect the factors of production performance of laying hens, combined with actual production, and adopt scientific countermeasures.

Choosing good laying hens Currently, the better breeds are Roman Isha, Hassex, Hyland, Ross, etc., and their average egg production at the age of 500 days ranges from 15 kg to 19 kg. Therefore, when ordering product layer chicks, it is necessary to thoroughly understand the production and management status of breeder farms and hatcheries, view the production and trade licenses of breeding livestock and poultry, certification of breeding livestock and poultry, and certification of quarantine inspection. Check the records of production records to understand the epidemic prevention. , incidence, medication and treatment, hatchery should be good reputation, technical skills, equipment and complete. In the rearing period and laying period of commercial layer chickens, strict selection shall be made to eliminate disabled chickens, widow-producing chickens, discontinued chickens and diseased chickens in a timely manner to improve the performance of laying eggs.

Do a good weight monitoring Chickens in the 8 weeks old -17 weeks of age, feeding and management is very critical, in particular, to master the changes in weight, according to the actual weight and target weight, timely adjustment of feeding and management, breed high-yielding layer. Persistent measurement of chicken weight once every two weeks, the test rate was between 2% and 5%, weight measurement of 2% or more for 10,000 or more chickens, 5% for small group chickens, and no less than 50 at least. The weight measurement is easy to carry out in the morning on an empty stomach. The interval period is as close as possible. When the evenness of chickens reaches more than 85%, it is an ideal chicken group. Its opening age is close, and the arrival time of peak egg production is the same. The peak period is fast and the duration is long. If the flock uniformity is too bad, groups should be well grouped. Chickens that exceed the target weight should be limited to feeding. Light chickens should supply 92%-93% of the normal daily feed. Medium-sized chickens should be fed daily. 90% of the amount of material. Chickens below the target weight should reduce the density of the flock, increase the amount of feed, improve feed quality, and strive to reach the target weight.

Reasonably control the illumination of rural chicken coops to open-based, in the rearing period to strictly enforce the light system for 8 hours, when the light is strong should be taken to block the sun, reduce plume, licking anus phenomenon, promote normal growth and development. From the age of 18 weeks, when the chicken is sexually mature, mature, and has an egg production rate of 5%, artificial light supplements are used to supplement the light before sunrise and after sunrise. In the first week, the light was increased for one hour. After that, the light was increased by 30 minutes per week until it was constant for 16 hours, resulting in a fixed lighting system. The light intensity during the production of eggs ranges from 3 watts to 3.5 watts per square meter, and the lamp staggers the spacing of 3 meters. The lamp height is 0.3 meters to 0.5 meters above the top of the cage layer. After the egg production peak, the light increased to 17 hours until the chickens were eliminated.

The ideal temperature for the regulation of temperature and humidity is conducive to the egg laying of the commercial temperature of 18 °C - 23 °C. The temperature of the chicken house below 8°C will affect the production of eggs. It may be used to add closed furnaces, fire tunnels, use plastic film to close the windows, and hang cotton curtains to increase the temperature of the chicken house and do insulation work. When the chicken house temperature is higher than 25°C, the feed intake of the chicken is reduced, and measures such as increasing ventilation, lowering the density of the flock, installing curtains, spraying water, cutting feathers, supplying clean cold water, etc. are performed to prevent the heatstroke from cooling. Humidity should be controlled at 50%-60%.

Strengthen the ventilation and production of laying hens in the heatstroke to cool down at the same time, we should strengthen the ventilation and reduce the ammonia and carbon dioxide content. Open the skylight on the roof in summer, install a ceiling fan, use a ventilation fan, and plant green trees around the house. In the winter, when the outside temperature is high at noon, open doors and windows for proper ventilation. The ventilation of the house is 0.5 meters to 1 meter per second in summer, 0.25 meters per second in winter and 0.5 meters per second in spring and autumn. When the ambient temperature rises above 30°C, the indoor wind speed is 2 meters per second, which has the best cooling effect and helps improve the production performance of summer chickens.

During the supply of full-price feed, chickens have high requirements for feed quality. Only high-quality full-priced feeds can meet the requirements of the chicken body for laying eggs. The feed must be preserved to prevent mildew, odor, or contamination by rodents. Restricted feeding was used during the rearing period. Free feeding was used during the early and middle stages of the laying period. Feed was added twice a day, and sufficient feed was provided to the laying hens 1 hour to 1 1/2 hours before turning off the lights to ensure that there were no leftovers at night. . When the egg production rate reaches 5%, the egg production stage feed is used. When the egg production rate reaches 50%, the egg production at the peak season is changed. When the egg production peak period is 4 weeks and the egg production rate is high, the peak rate drops by 4%-6%. Reduce or switch to the late seasoning of the production of eggs to reduce feed consumption until the layers are eliminated. In order to promote the absorption and digestion of chicken feed, each chicken can be fed with 4.5 g of pure fine sand in the diet.

When the correct route of administration is given to egg-laying hens, the first thing to do is to treat the disease symptomatically, grasp the dose of the drug, select the correct route of administration, and accurately administer the drug. Laying chickens are usually given a drug prevention interval of 3 weeks to 4 weeks. After the treatment, 1.5% calcium formate and probiotics and lactobacilli can be added to the feed to adjust the intestinal flora and improve the feed conversion rate during administration. In order to prevent obesity in laying hens, 0.1% choline chloride and amino-diamine can be added to the diet, which helps blood fat to flow and prevent fatty liver disease. When taking a mixture of ingredients, strict doses should be used, from little to large mix. When taking the drinking water, the chickens should be stopped for 2 hours to 5 hours, depending on the season, and they should stop drinking at night and drink water in the morning. Calculate the total amount of drinking water for chickens according to the daily drinking water of 200 ml-300 ml per chicken, and accurately add the drug and 0.1%-0.5% skim milk powder, from less to more, drink in batches to prevent binge drinking and improve drug efficacy. .

Reducing flock-stress chickens is very sensitive to stress, so care must be taken in feeding and management. There is a transition period of 5 days to 7 days when the feed is changed during laying. Avoid noise, injections, high temperatures, cold, insect repellent, broken materials, blackouts, humidity, ventilation, and harmful gases. In order to relieve the stress of the flock, the chicken can be fed fully 2 days to 3 days before the stress, 100 mg vitamin C per kilogram of feed or 1:500 vitamin C in drinking water, and 1/10,000 selenous acid. Sodium vitamin E powder. Two days before and after immunization, 0.1% astragalus polysaccharides were added to drinking water to increase the immune effect. When heat stress occurs in laying hens, the addition of 0.1% potassium chloride and 0.3%-1% baking soda and acetylsalicylic acid to the diet contributes to heat dissipation.

Doing a good job of preventing and disinfecting to improve the production performance of commercial layer chickens, and scientific immunity and disinfection are very important. Commercial hens mainly prevent infectious diseases such as Marek's disease, Newcastle disease, bird flu, infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngotracheitis, bursal disease, fowlpox, and renal transmission. Before and after immunization

24 hours should be disinfected or increased winter temperature 1 °C -2 °C, strengthen the immune effect. A disinfection tank was built at the entrance of the chicken farm and chicken house, and 3% of caustic soda water was put in place to disinfect people or vehicles in the entry and exit areas. Persist in sterilization with 0.05%-0.1% 1210 or 1:2000 or 0.3% peroxyacetic acid every 3 days to 5 days. Disinfectant should be used interchangeably. Wash the sink once every two days, clean it once a day, and treat chicken droppings harmlessly to eliminate the source of the disease.

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